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Bibliography of articles in support of graphology

The IGC would be nothing without a wealth of research. This section includes details of publications as further reading for those interested in graphology.

Recent papers

Baca-Lönn, L. (2016). Transformational Coaching Processes with Application of the Graphological Analysis, Graphology Solutions Group

Chernov, Y. and Nauer, M. A. (2016). Computer-aided Graphology - The basis for scientific validation, International Graphological Colloquium 2016

Gruber, N. & Kreuzpointner, L. (2015). The influence of implicit motives and graphological variables on learning variables. Psychology, 6, 1478-1485. 

1950-2000 list compiled by Dafna Yalon

Scientific papers published in non-graphological peer-reviewed journals since 1950.

Adler, S. (1968). Das Schreibverhalten des Erstklässlers. Masters Dissertation. Zurich University, Zurich, Switzerland.

Angel, E. (1954). Form level judgements on handwriting and their relations to the personality of the judges. MA thesis. New School for Social Research, New York City.

Angelozzi, D. (1992). E. Solange-Pellat - Les lois de l'ecriture. Introduzione critica, traduzione er appendice. Thesis, Urbino University.

Anthony, D. (1967). Is graphology valid? Psychology Today, 1.

Auzias, M. & Ajuriaguerra, J. (1986). Les fonctions culturelles de l'écriture et les conditions de son développement chez l'enfant. Enfance, 2-3, 145-167

Avé-Lallemant, U. (1989). The Star-Wave Test in pre-school age as prognostic of school maturity. In: Symposium of the International Academy for Research of Learning Disabilities. Prague.

Avé-Lallemant, U. (1982). Der Sterne-Wellen Test bei geistig behinderten Kindern. Der Kinderarzt 13(11), 1727-1731

Avé-Lallemant, U. (1985). Der SWT als Funktionstest und Projektivtest im Dienste der Flüchtlingsproblems. AWR Bulletin: Quarterly on Refugee Problems, 23(2), 59-73.

Bar-El, N. (1984). Interrelations among graphological judgments, psychological assessment and self-rating of personality trends (in Hebrew). MA thesis, Department of psychology, Tel-Aviv University.

Beck, J. Handwriting of the alcoholic. Forensic Science International, 28(1), 19-26.

Behrendt, J. E. (1984). Alzheimer disease and its effect on handwriting. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 29(1), 87-91.

Belin, C. J. (1979). L’écriture dans l’Anorexie mentale chez la jeune fille. Psychol. Med. (France), 10/11, 2117-2122.

Belin, C. J. (1978). The structural graphology and the suicidal personality. Confin. Psychiatr., 21(1-3), 25-30.

Beschel, G. (1956). Kritzelschrift und Schulreife. Psychol. Rdsch. 7, 31-44.

Ben-Zion, C., and Yalon, D. (1995). The Star-Wave-Test, Part 2 – The SWT as a screening tool for the detection of kindergarten children at risk and for comparative mapping of kindergartens (in Hebrew). Be’er Sheba: The 25th Scientific Congress of the Israeli Psychological Organization.

Beschel, G. (1993). Kritzelschriften als Bewegung, Leistung und Ausdruck. Beiträge z. Psych. D. K.- und Jschrift, 33.

Beumont, P. (1971). Small handwriting in some patients with anorexia nervosa . British Journal of Psychiatry, 119, 349-350.

Birron, D. (1985). Graphology – a validation study of the test’s claims (in Hebrew). The 20th Scientific Congress of the Israeli Psychological Organization.

Blank, R. (1973). Der Beitrag der Schriftanalyse zur Schullaufberatung der Zehnjährige. Dissertation, Stuttgart University, Stuttgart, Germany.

Blöte, A.W. and Bletz L.H. (1991). A longitudinal study on the structure of handwriting. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 72, 983-994.

Bosom, M. (2004). Desarrollo y estudios de validación de un nuevo instrumento para selección de directivos, basado en la grafologia (development and validation studies of a new managers’ selection instrument, based on graphology). Ph.D. Thesis, Universitat de Barcelona, Department of Social Psychology, Barcelona, Spain.

Breil, M. A. (1964). [Graphology in the service of psychiatry] (in German). Bibl. Psychiatr. Neurol., 12, 197-219.

Breil, M. A.(1963). Graphologische Untersuchung von 14 Handschriften von Patienten mit genuiner Epilepsie. Psych. Neurol.,140, 382-405.

Briggs, D. (1980). A study of the influence of handwriting upon grades using examination scripts. Educational Review, 32(2), 185-193.

Broern, W. (1971). Graphology and its importance in current medical psychology. Medizinische Klinik, Hamburg, 66, 6.

Broschk, S. Graphology and personality – a correlational analysis. M.A. thesis. Department of Psychology, Rand Africaans University, South Africa.

Brütsch, R. (1989). Pädagogik und Graphologie. Dissertation phil.l., Zurich University, Zurich, Switzerland.

Ceccarelli G. (1985). Scientificità della grafologia e professione di grafologo – Note per la discussione e prospettive di ricerca dal punto di vista di uno psicologo. paper at the Urbino Congress.

Challem, J. J. and Reed-Stitt, B. (1987). One Pre-Raphaelite legacy: An analysis of the personalities of Dante Gabriel Rossetti and Elizabeth Siddal as seen through their handwritings. The Journal of Pre-Raphaelite and Aesthetic Studies, 7,12-24.

Chédru, F. and Geschwind, N. (1972). Writing disturbances in acute confusional states. Neuropsychologia, 10, 343-353.

Christofanelli, P. (1998). La grafologia e in grado di rispondere ai criteri dell’indagine scientifice? pp. 189-200. In : Ceccarelli, G. Psicologia e grafologia : Quale rapporto? Milano: Franco Angeli.

Cohen Bar-Kama, S. (1997). The SWT’s contribution to the understanding of matutation delay, dysgraphy and dysfunction of the Cognitive Motor Control. In: Kucharska, A. and Sturma, J. (eds) The Star-Wave-Test in research and experience. Prague: Educational and Psychological Counseling Institute of the Czech Republic, pp.75-79.

Cohen Bar-Kama, S. (1997). Diagnosis of the hyperactive child through handwriting (in Hebrew). MA thesis, Faculty of Education, Haifa University, Haifa, Israel.

Davis, D. (1974). Jack the Ripper­ - The handwriting analysis. Criminologist, 9, 62-9.

Deguy, M., Genre, C. and Debaere, P. A. (1990). [Graphology in the psychological approach of candidates for esthetic surgery – Report of 45 cases] (in French). Ann. Chir. Plast. Esthet. 35(3), 250-256.

Dettweiler, L. R. and Lewinson, T. S. (1993). [Posibilities and limits of medical graphology. Determination of current status and perspectives – Part 2] (in German). Z. Gesamte Inn. Med. 48(1), 5-12.

Dettweiler, L. R. and Lewinson, T. S. (1992). [Posibilities and limits of medical graphology. Determination of current status and perspectives – Part 1] (in German). Z. Gesamte Inn. Med. 47(12), 549-557.

Deragna, S. (2001) Tratti di personalità e psicopatologia in una popolazione di alcolisti: un’indagine clinica e grafologica. Atti Congr. Idee Psichiatria, 97-101.

Deragna, S. (1995) Indici di rilassamento nella scrittura di gestanti in training autogeno respiratorio. Ricerca con la metodologia grafologica morettiana. Rivista Neonatologia

Deragna, S., Agostini, R., Coghi, I., Montanino, G., Nicotra, M. and Ruozi Berretta, L. (1994). Sterilità psicosomatica - ricerca per una ipotesi di struttura di personalità con la metodologia grafologica morettiana [Psychosomatic sterility - Search for a hypothesis of personality structure using moretti's graphological method]. Minerva Ginecologica, 46(1-2).

Donig, C. (1978). Die Handschrift als diagnostisher Hinweis für psychogene Erkrankungen. Ther. Ggw. 117(4), 515-542.

Dostal, K. (1966). Die Phasen der Schreibreifung [The phases of writing maturation] (in German). Erziehung und Unterricht, 5.

Doubrawa, R. (1977). Veränderungen der Handschrift im Alter [Changing of handwriting in old age] (in German). Zeitschrift für Gerontologie, 10, 355-364.

Doyharzabal M. del C., Achinelli I., Dengra C. and Koziner B. (2003). La grafologia como auxiliar en la evaluacion del comportamiento del paciente sometido a trasplante de Medula Osea (in Spanish). Revista Oncologia Clinica, 2, 593.

Dreher, A. et al. (1986). Clinical study of the correlation between antipsychotic operative dose of perphenazine and fine motor in Haase’s test. Pharmacopsychiatrie, 19(4), 206-207.

Dreher, A. (1982). Computer ermittelt feinmotorische Störungen in der Handschrift [Computer recorded fine-motricity disturbances in Handwriting] (in German). Psycho, 8, 474-484.

Drory, A. (1986). Graphology and job performance: a validation study. in: Nevo, B. Scientific aspects of graphology. Springfield, Ill. : Charles C. Thomas. pp. 165-173.

Elefant, U. C. (2002). Untersuchungen zu schriftpsychologischen Erkenntnisse über Patientinnen mit Anorexie nervosa oder Bulimia nervosa. Dr. Med. dissertation, Medizinische Fakultät, Leipzig University.

Elkoshi, R. (2000). Childrens’ graphic notations as representation of musical perceptions. Ph.D. Thesis. Tel-Aviv University, Department of musicology. Tel-Aviv, Israel.

Elliott, C. A. E. (2000). Standartisation of the seven graphology factors scale for application in industry. Dissertation Abstract International: Section M: The Sciences and Engineering, 61 (3-B), 1680.

Ericsson, L. Graphic skills as a diagnostic tool for working with the elderly. Visible language, 24 (2), 214-226.

Essing, W. (1965). Untersuchungen über Veränderungen der Schreibmotorik im Grundschulalter [Experiments in changes in writing motricity at primary-school age] (in German). Human Development, 8, 194-221.

Fahrenberg, J. (1961). Graphometrie[Graphometry](in German). Ph.D. Dissertation. Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Freiburg/Br., Germany.

Faust, J. and Price, J. (1972). A twin study of graphology. Journal of Biosocial Studies (UK), 4(4), 379-396.

Frederick, C. J. (1968). An investigation of handwriting of suicide patients through suicide notes. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 73, 263-267.

Friedman, (1987). More on Hitler and Parkinson disease. New England Journal of Medicine, 316(2), 114.

Galeazzi, G. (2002). Scientificità e grafismo – Saggi di epistemologia. Urbino: Libreria Moretti Editrice.

Galeazzi, G. (1993) Valutazioni epistemolgiche della grafologia. Scienze Umane & Grafologia, 2, 139-154.

Gerchow and Wittlich, B. Experimentelle Untersuchungen zum Nachweis alkoholbedingter Persönlichkeitsschädigung [Ecperimental studies proving deterioration of the alcohol-dependant personality] (in German). In: Experimentelle und statistische Untersuchungen über alkoholbedingte Persönlichkeitsveränderungen in der post-resorptiven Phase. Kiel: Institut für gerichtliche und soziale Medizin und Institut für Psychologie der Universität Kiel.

Gilbert P. et Chardon C. (1989). Analyser l’écriture, formation permanente
en sciences humaines. Paris: ESF Editeur, Entreprises moderne d’édition.

Gill, S.A. (2000). Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Nonverbal Learnind Disability as an adaptive anxiety response impacted by spatially oriented handwriting excercises. Ph.D. thesis. Walden University, department of Psychology.

Gormezano, V. (2002). Graphological distress signs as a measurement of young adults suicidal tendencies (in Hebrew). MA thesis, Department of Developmental Aspects in Education, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel.

Groffmann, K. J. and Fahrenberg, J. (1960). Experimentelle Untersuchungen zum Problem der Schreibgeschwindigkeit. Psychologische Forschung, 26, 114-156.

Gross, L. J. (1975). Drug-induced handwriting changes: an empirical review. Tex. Rep. Biol. Med, 33(3), 370-390.

Grünewald, G. (1959). Über den Einfluss von Drogen auf die Schriftpsychomotorik {On the influence of drugs on handwriting’s fine-motricity] (in German). Archiv für Psychiatrie, 198.

Grünewald, G. (1957). Graphometrie – Grössenveränderungen einer 25 Jahre umfassenden Schriftentwicklung (Graphometry – changes in sizes in a comprehensive development of handwriting over 25 years] (in German). Zeitschrift für Diagnostische Psychologie und Persönlichkeitsforschung, 4, 70-76.

Grünewald–Zuberbier, E. (1967). Aktivierung und Kontrolle Bei verhaltenschwierigen Kindern im Bereich der Graphomotorik [Activation and control in the grapho-motricity of children with behavior difficulties. (in German) Psychol. Beitrage, 9, 503-524.

Guthke, J., Beckmann, J. and Schmidt, G. (2002). Ist an der Graphologie doch etwas dran? – Untersuchungen zur Übereinstimmung von Graphologenurteil und psychometrischen Persönlichkeitstests. Zeitschrift für Personalpsychologie, 4(1), 171-176.

Gugliotta, N. (1985). Personalita patologiche e relativi segni grafici [Pathological personality and related graphic signs] (in Italian). Rivista Internationale di Psycologia e Ipnosi, 26 (2-3).

Haase, H. J. (1986). Der standartisierte Handschrifttest – Diagnostische Verwertung bei akuten schizophrene Psychosen [The standadized Handwriting Test – diagnistic evaluation in accute schizophrenic psychoses] (in German). Psycho, 1986, 620-630.

Haase, H. J. (1978). The purely neuroleptic effects and its relation to the “neuroleptic threshold”. Acta Psychiatr. Belg., 78 (1), 19-36.

Haase, H. J., Floru, L. and Knaack, M. (1974). The clinical importance of the neuroleptic threshold and its fine motor determination by the handwriting test. Journal of Internal Medicine Research, 2(5), 321-330.

Haase, H. J., Kaumeier, S., Schwartz, H., Gundel, A., Linde O. K., Maetz, H., Scheel, R., Stripf, A. and Stripf, L. (1978). Open study with Bromperidol (C-C 2489), a new neuroleptic, for the determination of the neuroleptic threshold and the neuroleptic-therapeutic range. Pharmakopsychiatr. Neuropsychopharmakol., 11 (2), 81-85.

Hasse-Sander, I., Gross, G., Huber, G., Peters S. and Schuttler, R. (1982). Testpsychologische Untersuchungen in Basisstadien und reinen Residualzustanden schizophrener Erkrankungen. [Psychological tests’ studies in the basic state and pure residual state of schizophrenic diseases] (in German). Arch. Psychiatr. Nervenkr. 231(3), 235-249.

Haydu, G. G. and S. Feldman (1982). Kinetic Patterns of individuality in acoustic and graphic productions. Language and Communication: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 2, 133-136

Haydu G.G. and Korenyi, C. (1979). Graphokinetic effect of Huntington Disease (Chorea) in blind study of handwriting. Act. Nerv. Super. (Praha). 19 (Suppl. 2), 355-356.

Hearns, R. (1972). The use of graphology in criminology. Criminal Psychopathology, 3, 461-464.

Heer, G. M. (1977). Spätfolgen frühkindlicher Mutterentbehrung im Spiegel der Handschrift von Jugendlichen. Dissertation phil. l., Zurich University, Zurich, Switzerland.

Heinze, B. Faktoren der Handschrift, Persönlichkeit, Interessenrichtung und Leistung – Ein Beschreibungsversuch mit Hilfe eines nichtlinearen Faktorenmodells. [Factors of handwriting, personality, direction of interests and Achievements] (in German). Dissertation phil. Hamburg University, Hamburg, Germany.

Heyming, L. The effect of graphomotor excercises and music on normal children and children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. M.A. Thesis. California State University, St. Bernadino.

Hilton, O. (1983). How individual are personal writing habits? Journal of Forensic Sciences, 28, 683-5.

Hilton, O. (1952). Can the forger be identified from his handwriting? Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology and Police Science, 43, 547-55.

Holmes, S. (2002). A Neuropsychological investigation into the validity of handwriting analysis. M.A. Thesis, Boston University, Department of psychology, Boston, MA.

Holzwarth, J. (1947). Die Schrift der Hilfsschüler. Dissertation phil. l., Vienna University, Vienna, Austria.

Hoffmann, H. (1961). Stabilität und Faktorenstruktur einiger konventioneller Kriterien des Schreibdrucks [stability and factor-structure of some conventional criteria of writing-pressure] (in German). Psychologische Beitrage, 6, 32-50.

Hofsommer, W. (1973). Untersuchungen zur Reliabilität und Validität schriftpsychologischer Diagnosen. [Studies of the relioability and validity of handwriting-psychological diagnoses] (in German). Ph. D. Dissertation, Rh. Friedrich-Wilhelm Universität, Bonn, Germany.

Hofsommer, W. and Holdworth R. (1963). Die Validität der Handschriftenanalyse bei der Auwahl von Piloten [The validity of handwriting analysis in the selection of pilots] (in German). Psychologie und Praxis, 7, 175-178.

Hofsommer, W., Holdsworth R., Seifert Th. (1965). Reliabilitätsfragen in der Graphologie [Questions of reliability in graphology] (in German). Psychologie und Praxis, 9(1), 14-24.

Hofsommer, W., Holdworth and Seifert Th. (1963). Zur Bewährungskontrolle graphologischer Diagnosen. Psychologische Beiträge, 7(3), 397-401.

Högler, A. (1958). Messungen an Zwillingshandschriften [Measuring and handwritings of twins] (in German). Zeitschrift Diagnostische Psychologie, 6.

Jarossová, Z. (2001). Pismo ako projektivny prejav osobnosti: Graficke znaky sociability v rukopise schizofrenikov v porovnani so zdravou poppulaciou. [Handwriting as projective expression of personality: Graphic signs in the handwriting of schyzophrenics compared to healthy population]. Mgr. Theis, Department of psychology, Faculty of philosophy, Komenius University, Bratislava.

Kanfer, A. and Casten, D.F. (1958). Observations on disturbances in neuromuscular coordination in patients with malignant disease. Bulletin of the Hospital for Joint Diseases, 19, 1-19.

Kanfer, A. (1970). Neuromuscular aberrations with developing malignancies. Proc. Amer. Ass. Cancer Res. 163.

Kao, H. S. R. and Wong, C.M. (1988). Pen Pressure in Chinese Handwriting. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 67(3), 778.

Keinan G. & Eilat-Greenberg S. (1993). Can stress be measured by handwriting
analysis ? The effectiveness of the analytic method. Applied psychology : an
international review, 42(2), 153-170.

Kegel, Z. (1990). Wykorzystanie grafologii do selekcji personelu: I Polsko-Hiszpanskie Sympozjum, Wroclaw: Acta Universitatis Wratislaviensis.

Keller, M. Die Bedeutung der Adressaufschrift für Schriftvergleichung [The meaning of the written address for document examination] (in German). Zeitschrift für angewandte Psychologie, 37(1-2), 135-169.

Kliebisch, S. (1998). Handgeschicklichkeit und Graphomotorik bei Vorschulkindern. [Manual skills and grapho-motricity in preschoolers] (in German). M. D. Thesis, Justus-Liebig Universität, Giessen, Germany.

Knobloch, H. (1971). Die graphologische Bewertung [The graphological evaluation] (in German). In: Stoll, F. (ed.). Die Psychologie das 20. Jahrhundert, Band VII: Anwendung im Berufsleben. Zurich: Kindler, pp. 98-125.

Kohlschütter, U. and Wolff, H. (1991). Der Sterne-Wellen Test bei Kindern mit Down Syndrom [The Star-Wave Test in children with Down-Syndrome] (in German). Unsere Jugend, 43.

Kranz-Gross, A. and Haase, H. J. (1958). Der Schreibdruck im Vergleich zur anderen psychomotorischen Verläufe bei endogenen Depressionen und Normalen [The writing pressure in comparison of other psycho-motoric processes in endogenic depressed and normals] (in German). Z. exp. ang. Psychologie, 5, 246-267.

Kucharska, A. and Sturma, J. (1997). The Star-Wave Test in the diagnosis of school readiness. In: Kucharska A. and Sturma J. (Eds.), The Star-Wave-Test in research and experience (pp. 80-95). Prague: Educational and Psychological Counselling Institute of the Czech Republic.

Kurapka E. and Malevski H. (2002).Changes in penal law doctrine and their influence onto a forensic expertise. In: Kegel Z. (ed.) Contemporary problems of proof from a document - Proceedings of the IXth Wroclaw Symposium of Handwriting Research. Wroclaw, Poland. pp. 105-112.

Kustner, U. and Mueller-Oerlinghausen, B. (1985). The handwriting test as an aid to neuroleptic dosage. Int. J. Clin.Pharmacol. Ther. Toxicol. 23 (suppl. 1), 34-41.

Langer, G. (1993). Graphology in Personality Assessment: A Reliability and Validity Study. Ph. D. Dissertation, The Faculty of The Gordon F.Derner Insitutute of Advanced Psychological Studies, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY.

Legrün, A. (1960). Aufsatzschreiben und Schrift [Composition writing and handwriting] (in German). Schule und Psychologie, 7.

Legrün, A. (1959-60). Three Adolescent Girls: Handwriting Similarity. Kriminalistik, 14, 161.

Legrün, A. (1956). Disturbances in handwriting shortly before death. Kriminalistik, 12,11, 454-5.

Lena, S. (2000). Criteri e metodi per la validazione della grafologia – excursus storico, osservazioni e prospettive [Criteria and methods for validating graphology – Historical background, observations and prospects] (in Italian). Lecture held in the congress “Protocols for an emerging science – Graphology”, Bologna.

Lerer et al. (1977). Effects of methylphenidate on handwritings of children with MBD. Journal of Pediatrics (USA), 91(1), 127-132.

Lewinsky, R. (1977). Möglichkeiten und Grenzen der Graphologie in der klinisch-diagnostischen Praxis [Possibilities and boundaries of graphology in clinical-diagnostic practice] (in German). Dissertation phil. l., Zurich University, Zurich, Switzerland.

Lewinson-Stein, T. S. (1986). Handwriting analysis in diagnosis and treatment of alcoholism. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 62, 265-266.

Lewinson-Stein, T. S. (1983). The Genain quadruplets at age 51 – handwriting assessment. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 56(1), 171-176.

Lewitt P. A. (1983). Micrografia as a focal sign of neurological disease. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 46(12), 1152-1153.

Lieberman. (1983). Adolf Hitler: his diaries and Parkinson disease. New England Journal of Medicine, 309(6), 375-376.

Lievens, S. (2002). Eustress en Distress in het handschrift. in: Mens en Organisatie, Liber Amicorum Pol Coetsier: Gent: Academia Press, pp. 281-303.

Lievens, S. (1976). Etude comparative entre les résultats de l'analyse graphologique de lettres de sollicitation et les jugements externes.In: Le langage et l'homme, 32, 13-20.

Lockowandt, O. (1976). Present status of the investigation of handwriting psychology as a diagnostic method. Journal Supplement Abstract Service, 6. American Psychological Organization.

Lockowandt, O. (1968). Faktorenanalytische Validierung der Handschrift mit besonderer Berücksichtigung projektiver Methoden. Zeitschr. exp. ang. Psychol. 15, 487-530.

Loock, A. C., Myburgh, C. P. H., & Poggenpoel, M. (2003). Art as projective medium: An educational psychological model to address unresolved trauma in young adults. Education, 123(4), 705-713.

Lomonaco, Th., Harrison, R., and Klein, F. (1973). Accuracy of matching TAT and graphological personality profiles. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 36, 703-706.

Lossen, H. (1947). Der seelische Verlaufsprozess bei Kindern und Jugendlichen. Disseratation, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Freiburg/Br., Germany.

Lowis, M. J. and Mooney, S. (2001). Examination performance and graphological analysis of students’ handwriting. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 93(2), 367-382.

Lyons, R., Payne, Ch., McCabe, M., Fielder, C. (1998). Legibility of doctors' handwriting: Quantitative comparative study. British Medical Journal, 317 (7162), 863-4.

Macleod, C. (1968). A 'Ripper' handwriting analysis. Criminology, 9, 120-7.

Macotte, A.C. and Stern, C. (1997). Qualitative analysis of graphomotor output in children with attentional disorders. Child Neuropsychology, 3(2), 147-153.

Maeland, A. F. (1992). Handwriting and perceptual motor skills in clumsy, dysgraphic and normal children. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 75(3), 1207-1217.

Margolin, D. J. and Wing, A. M. (1983). Agraphia and micrographia: Clinical manifestations of motor programming and performance disorders. Acta Psychologica, 54, 263-283.

McBride, H. E. A., & Siegel, L. S. (1997). Learning disabilities and adolescent suicide. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 30(6), 652-59.

Meier, M. A. (1978). Untersuchung zur Handschrift von Schizophrenen [Study of the handwriting of schizophrens]. Ph. D. Dissssertation, Zurich University, Zurich, Switzerland.

McNeil, E.B. and Blum, G. S. (1952). Handwriting and psychosexual dimensions of personality. Journal of Projective Techniques, 16, 476-487.

Michaux Granier C., Vrignaud P., Ohayon T. (1999). Validité factorielle de la
graphologie - Une étude exploratoire [Factorial validity – an exploratory study]. In: Huteau M. and Lautrey J. Approches différentielles en psychologie. PUF, p. 309-314.

Michel, F. (1971). Etude experimentale de la vitesse du geste graphique [ Experimental study of the velocity of graphic movement]. Neuropsychologia, 9, 1-13.

Müller, B, Kliebisch, S and Neuhauser, G. Children with Minimal Brain Dysfunction – Motor Behaviour and Performance in Graphomotor tasks. In: Kucharska, A. and Sturma, J. (eds) The Star-Wave-Test in research and experience. Prague: Educational and Psychological Counseling Institute of the Czech Republic, pp.96 -103.

Mullins, J. (1972). A handwriting model of children with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 5, 306-311.

Naftali, A. (1965). Behavior factors in handwriting identification. Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology, and Police Science, 56, 528-538.

Nauer, , M. A. (2001). Assessment Center versus oder mit Graphologie? Vortrag am Graphologischen Kongress, Universität Zürich, 19./20. Oktober 2001.

Nauer, M. A. (1998). Assessment Center versus Graphologie. In: io-management, 4, 42-45.

Nauer, M. A. (1998). Assessment Center versus Graphologie in der Diagnostik von Führungspotential. Vortrag am Graphologischen Kongress, Universität Zürich, 16./17. Oktober 1998.

Nauer-Meier, M. A. (1981). Äeusserungsformen des Narzissmus in der Handschrift {Expressive forms of narcissim]. In: Vom dienenden Geist. Beiträge zu Gegenwartsfragen der Psychologie und der Schriftpsychologie. Festschrift zum 65. Geburtstag von Herbert Hönel. Wien: Hans Eggert Schröder, Wien.

Nevo, B. (1988). Yes, graphology can predict occupational success: Rejoinder to Ben Shakhar et al. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 66, 92-94.

Oinonen, P. (1961). Om konstansen hos de grafologiska tecknen. Nordisk Psykology, 13, 201-206.

Oinonen, P. (1960). Huono käsiala psykologisena ongelmana – kansakoululapisilla suoritettu tutkimus [Poor handwriting as a psychological problem – an investigation carried out among Primary school children] (in Finnish). Ph.D. Thesis, University of Jyväskylä, Finland: Acta academiae pedagogicae Jyväskyläensis XXI.

Oosthnizen S. (1991). Graphology as predictor of acedemic achievement. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 71(3), 715-722.

Paulson, G. W. (1976). Predictive tests in Huntington’s disease. Res. Publ. Assoc. Res. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 55, 317-329.

Pearl, R. (1974).The value of handwriting in neurologic examination. The Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine, 41(1), 200-204.

Peeples, E. E. (1989). Measurement of handwriting factors. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 68, 142.

Peeples, E. E. (1988). Genetics and handwriting – a study of the handwritings of family members. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Northern Colorado.

Peeples, E. E., Searls, D.T. and Wellingham-Jones, P. (1995). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a longitudinal case study of handwriting characteristics. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 81(3), 1243-1252.

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